How to do a methodology for a literature review
According to Caulley of La Trobe University, the literature review should: The Difference between Method, Methodology, and Theory…and How to Get the Balance Right? Writing the Methods Section. When this is done, you are ready to proceed with part three of your research report, in which you explain the methods you used. How will you attempt to control for potential confounding variables and errors?
For example, some systematic reviews on antibiotic therapy for the prevention of preterm birth [ 29 , 30 ] report a variety of outcome measures other than preterm birth e. The quality and scope of published reviews varies widely.
Describing Your Research Plan. Furthermore, search terms should be focused so that they are broad enough in scope to capture all the relevant data yet narrow enough to minimize the capture of extraneous literature that may result in unnecessary time and effort being spent assessing irrelevant articles.
Include a short summary at the end of each section. A total of 18 research databases were searched for publications from through to the present , with key articles obtained primarily from PsychINFO, MEDLINE, ERIC, and The Cochrane Library. A total of 13 waves of data have been collected by mail surveys over the first 20 years of the children’s lives, with information provided by parents, maternal and child health nurses, teachers and, from the age of 12 years onwards, the children themselves.
It is very important to note that your review should not be simply a description of what others have published in the form of a set of summaries, but should take the form of a critical discussion, showing insight and an awareness of differing arguments, theories and approaches.
In developing a search strategy, the scope of the search, its thoroughness and the time available to conduct it, all need to be considered. One of the most common deficiencies found in research papers is that the proposed methodology is not suitable to achieving the stated objective of your paper.
Introspectively engage in an ongoing dialectic between the application of theories and methods to help enable you to use the outcomes from your methods to interrogate and develop new theories, or ways of framing conceptually the research problem.
Documents are tangible materials in which facts or ideas have been recorded. For example, a comprehensive search of twelve health related citation databases using database specific search strategies identified over thirty reviews evaluating the effectiveness of nurse and midwife-led interventions on clinical outcomes, as part of an on-going study into the impact of the role of nurse and midwife specialist and advanced practitioners in Ireland.
Questionnaires are particularly well suited for research seeking to measure some parameters for a group of people e. The research looks at adolescent alcohol use at several levels, including initiation of use, the age at first use, the pattern of regular use, and high risk alcohol use and misuse. Literature Review Just as the literature review section of your paper provides an overview of sources you have examined while researching a particular topic, the methodology section should cite any sources that informed your choice and application of a particular method [i.
The method must be appropriate to fulfilling the overall aims of the study. A description of a research study’s method should not be confused with a description of the sources of information. Items in other media can also be the subject of documentary analysis, including films, songs, websites and photographs.
A complete list of the databases searched is included in Appendix 1. Top of page Structure of the literature review The overall structure of your review will depend largely on your own thesis or research area. Paper Revisions Testimonials I am lucky enough to visit your website at my worst time. The review team should include at least one person with methodological expertise in conducting systematic reviews and at least one person with expertise on the topic under review.
This planning assists in meeting the requirements of the systematic review and in answering the research question. Fourth, it is not always clear in the research when the data were collected, but the timing of data collections, particularly of adolescent self-reports of alcohol use, may have an important bearing on the results. Again, these are the areas that you will want to revisit in your discussion.
In such instances, this limitation should be acknowledged when reporting the review and it might be worthwhile reporting the difference between searches with and without language restrictions in order to estimate the amount of literature that might have been excluded.
Provide background and a rationale for methodologies that are unfamiliar for your readers. In the latter cases in particular, the review will be guided by your research objective or by the issue or thesis you are arguing and will provide the framework for your further work. Yet Another Writing Tip Methods and the Methodology Do not confuse the terms “methods” and “methodology.
The aim of a literature review is to show your reader your tutor that you have read, and have a good grasp of, the main published work concerning a particular topic or question in your field. Overall, 26 cross-sectional and 30 longitudinal studies were included in this review. Be clear and concise in your explanation. This paper describes the conduct and methods used to identify and appraise published and unpublished systematic reviews systematically.
Longitudinal studies were seen as a particularly valuable resource as they facilitate the testing of relationships between early events or characteristics and later outcomes, and enable the identification of developmental sequences and pathways, as well as the construction of theoretical models which can then be validated in future research.
It can be valuable to obtain information from both parents and adolescents because they generally do not report the same level of problems in their interactions and the views of one may counterbalance those of the other. Are the reviews comparable in terms of eligibility criteria, study characteristics and primary outcome of interest? Interpretive methods focus on analytically disclosing the meaning-making practices of human subjects [the why, how, or by what means people do what they do], while showing how those practices arrange so that it can be used to generate observable outcomes.
Because you are the primary instrument for generating the data, the process for collecting that data has a significantly greater impact on producing the findings. Structuring Your Research Thesis. An exception to this rule is if you select an unconventional methodological approach; if this is the case, be sure to explain why this approach was chosen and how it enhances the overall process of discovery.
This is how scholarship grows and branches out into new intellectual territory. Get your Research Topic Brief of words on your field of study in just business days including… An explanation why we choose this topic?
In the social and behavioral sciences, it is important to always provide sufficient information to allow other researchers to adopt or replicate your methodology. Documentary Analysis Documentary analysis involves obtaining data from existing documents without having to question people through interview, questionnaires or observe their behaviour. Introduce the overall methodological approach for investigating your research problem.
Assess these reviews for relevance and quality; ideally, using independent assessment by at least two members of the review team. During the planning phase, before commencing the systematic review of reviews, a review team should be established.
This discussion includes describing the theoretical concepts that inform the choice of methods to be applied, placing the choice of methods within the more general nature of academic work, and reviewing its relevance to examining the research problem. Obtain full text copies of these potentially eligible reviews.
The review team is responsible for developing a review selection strategy. Interviews are not particularly well suited for gaining information from large numbers of people.
Decisions made in selecting the data you have analyzed or, in the case of qualitative research, the subjects and research setting you have examined, Tools and methods used to identify and collect information, and how you identified relevant variables, The ways in which you processed the data and the procedures you used to analyze that data, and The specific research tools or strategies that you utilized to study the underlying hypothesis and research questions.
To locate data and statistics, GO HERE. In addition, an effectively written methodology section should: Purdue University; Methods and Materials. Furthermore, researchers might find that identifying and highlighting a recent high quality systematic review will prove of most benefit to decision makers using their review or reviews. The remainder of your methodology section should describe the following: This work may be in any format, including online sources.
For example, in our review of reviews on fetal fibronectin and transvaginal cervical ultrasound for predicting preterm birth, [ 8 ] we included reviews that had incorporated studies among women who were both symptomatic and asymptomatic for preterm birth.
The purpose of such an overview, in identifying and appraising all published reviews is to describe their quality, summarise and compare their conclusions and discuss the strength of these conclusions, so that best evidence is made available to clinical decision-makers. The purpose of your review of the literature was to set the stage for your own research. If you are analyzing existing data, such as a data set or archival documents, describe how it was originally created or gathered and by whom.
For instance, if a researcher wants to determine whether the introduction of a traffic sign makes any difference to the number of cars slowing down at a dangerous curve, she or he could sit near the curve and count the number of cars that do and do not slow down. When a selection strategy has been developed, the selection process is carried out in a similar way to a review of individual studies: Studies were eligible for consideration in this review if: Equally, adolescent reports are affected by adolescents’ perceptions, and research has demonstrated that adolescents generally have a more negative view of their families than do their parents, and they see their families as less cohesive Noller